In managing systems–such as international organizations, skilled diplomats mater the heuristics and beat the system in order to get resolutions and treaties passed. Voting rules of procedures can be manipulated. So it is interesting to see that the Nobel was awarded to two American economists who spent their lives studying ways to defeat gaming for selfish purposes–in search of fairness as well as efficiency:
“The idea is to level the playing field,” Mr. Pathak said. “You want to make sure that not only do sophisticated players not have to spend the time learning the strategies and different heuristics that will get them ahead, but also that unsophisticated players are not hurt by the fact that they are not aware of all this information.”
The field is called “market design and matching” and Mr. Shapley studied alongside John Nash at Princeton who is also credited as one of the fathers of game theory. Their work benefitted educational admissions/class selection, matched medical school graduates to residency programs, and most importantly designed a system to better fit kidney donors with recipients.